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Periodontology deals with diseases of the supporting structures of the teeth (periodontium) including the gums, alveolar bone, and the ligament that binds the teeth to the bone.


  • Red, swollen, sensitive gum tissue.

  • Bleeding gums when brushing teeth.

  • Separating and receding gum tissue.

  • The appearance of pus on the edge of the gums.

  • Changes in the position of one or more teeth: tilting and teeth outgrowth which commonly occur when gaps left by missing teeth have not been repaired with bridges, implants or a denture.

The main risk factors for periodontal tissue inflammation:  

  • poor oral hygiene,

  • smoking,

  • stress,

  • decreased immunity,

  • osteoporosis,

  • genetic factors,

  • hormonal changes,

  • diabetes.


The phases of periodontitis are:

  • accumulation of plaque that causes the second stage of periodontitis – gingivitis;

  • gingivitis is an inflammation of the gum tissue (gingiva); in gingivitis (bacterial penetration into the gingiva) the gums are inflamed, painful and bleeding, there is noticeable bad breath;

  • when the inflammatory process expands and affects deeper structures, periodontitis occurs, that is, the penetration of bacteria into the ligament connecting the tooth to the bone;

  • advanced periodontitis occurs at the end of periodontal disease, when the bone and all supporting structures are destroyed.

That is why it is extremely important to go for regular check-ups with your dentist, who can detect the initial signs of the disease and start treatment at an early stage when bone loss is minimal. Bone loss in periodontal disease is irreversible. This means that even if the progression of periodontal disease is stopped, the lost bones will not recover.

Good oral hygiene is extremely important in preventing periodontitis. Brushing and flossing regularly and properly will protect your teeth against harmful bacteria and microbes.

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